Ike's House proprietary brand name for Brazilian plywood which is always made with WBP glue and is available with oversized panels such as 4x10, 4x12, 5x8, 5x10 and 5x12.
Baltic Birch Grading
Baltic Birch is a general designation of plywood from Russia and nearby Baltic states (such as Finland, Latvia…etc.).
The grading for Baltic Birch is established by the Russian intergovernmental standard GOST 3916.1-96.
B - Selected one-piece face, generally light and even in color. Occasional small pin knots and some brown streaks may be allowed, but generally no patches, voids or mineral streaks. Surface is sanded intended for natural finish. Availability is tight in summer months.
BB - One-piece face generally light and even in color. Pin knots and mineral streaking or discoloration is allowed with occasional sound tight knots permitted. Open knots and defects in BB face veneers have been cut out and replaced with small oval or round veneer patches before gluing. The veneer selected for the patches is of the same general color as the face veneer. Surface is sanded.
CP - One-piece face very close to grade BB. Rejected from BB for small defects with more streaking. Occasional hairline splits of less than .5mm are allowed. The oval or round patches may or may not be matched for color with the base face veneer. There will normally be more patches per face than the BB grade. Sanded surface.
C - Patches, open knots and veneer splits allowed. Surface is not sanded.
SHOP GRADES - Shop panels are offered in the full 60” X 60” format in all of the grades listed above. Panels allow for 1-3 splits on the face veneer along one edge of the panel in lengths no longer than 10” and no wider than 1/4”
Book Matched Face
A type of face where the grain patterns are matched at every veneer joint. Face is composed by turning over every other strip of veneer and joining them together. This produces a grain pattern that is matched at every veneer joint. The term book match refers to the veneer being matched just like the pages of a book.
CARB Phase 2
The California Air Resources Board (CARB) enacted legislation in 2007 to reduce formaldehyde emissions in composite wood products. The Air Toxic Control Measure (ATCM) includes hardwood plywood (HWPW), particleboard (PB), and medium density fiberboard (MDF), including thin MDF less than or equal to 8 mm. It also applies to finished goods that contain these products that are offered for sale, that are supplied, used, or manufactured for sale in California.
The ATCM, in part, contains Phase I and Phase 2 compliance dates for each category of composite wood products as displayed below:
Phase 1 (P1) and 2 (P2) Emission Standards (ppm)
California Air Resources Board (CARB) exempt (NAF/ULEF) products have no added formaldehyde (NAF) and/or ultra-low emitting formaldehyde (ULEF), and have been exempted from third party certification requirements of CARB ATCM 93120. NAUF products, as defined by the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED standard, may be used for low-emitting materials credit under LEED 2009 for Commercial Interiors and LEED 2009 for New Construction and Major Renovations for projects registered by June 1, 2015. Projects registered to LEED v4 (as of November 20, 2013) will offer LEED credit to IEQ 4.4: Low-emitting Materials for NAF and ULEF CARB compliant panels. LEED v4 does not recognize NAUF.
CG (Check Guard)
On 4 ply fancy plywood, decorative veneer is laid up on to long grain veneer of base panel. Their grains run in the same direction. Therefore, decorative face veneer is sometimes affected by movement of base panel long grain veneer. Japanese paper or thin meranti veneer can be inserted in between as check guard to prevent face veneer checking caused by movement of base panel log grain veneer.
Chinese Plywood Grading
In general Chinese plywood face and back veneer grading follows HPVA grading rules. However the actual product is a collaboration between importer and manufacturer to meet specific customer needs and requirements. Many elements such as core construction, quality of core veneer, moisture control, thickness tolerance, glue type etc. are per agreement between mill and importer that will ultimately determine the quality of the plywood. It is important to choose a trusted and experienced importer when purchasing Chinese commodity plywood due to the elements of construction and product quality previously mentioned.
According to International Composite Board Emission Standards (ICBES), there are 3 European formaldehyde classes, namely: E0, E1 and E2. This classification is based on the measurement of formaldehyde emission levels. For instance, E0 is classified as having less than 3 milligrams of formaldehyde out of every 100 grams of the glue used in particleboard and plywood fabrication. E1 and E2, conversely, are classified as having 9 and 30 grams of formaldehyde per 100 grams of glue respectively.
Fancy D Passed JPIC
This is a plywood grading rule governed by "Japan Plywood Inspection Corp (JPIC)". Fancy D Passed is a face grading under JPIC which is equivalent to HPVA A grade. D stands for Type II glue and is used mostly for fancy plywood from Vietnam, Taiwan and Indonesia. Fancy D Passed BB is a downgrade from Fancy D Passed which permits more natural defects such as mineral streaks, pin knots and discoloration. This grade is similar to HPVA B and sometimes C grade face. They are lower priced than Fancy D Passed grade.
Film Face Plywood
Plywood with a high-density overlay (HDO) of phenolic resin impregnated paper bonded to give excellent off form finishes and multiple re-uses for the Concrete Building and Construction Industries. Edges of the plywood are usually sealed with an Acrylic based paint for maximum moisture resistance and durability. The lower stress grades are normally manufactured with a soft-wood core such as Radiata Pine with Hardwood veneer on the two outside faces. The middle stress grades can have a combination of both soft & hardwood veneers (again with hardwood veneer on the outside faces), then the higher stress grades are generally 100% hardwood to meet the strength rating required.
Type of gas that causes irritation to eyes and cause difficulty to breath. This is one of the factors that causes sick house syndrome. Formaldehyde is the simplest aldehyde and is also known by its systematic name methanol. A gas at room temperature, formaldehyde is colorless and has a characteristic pungent, irritating odor. In view of its widespread use, toxicity and volatility, exposure to formaldehyde is a significant consideration for human health.
FSC is acronym of Forest Stewardship Council. It consists of two certifications which are FSC FM（Forest Management) and FSC COC（Chain of Custody).
Ike is certified for FSC Chain of Custody. FSC Chain of Custody certification allows companies to label their FSC products, which in turn enables consumers to identify and choose products that support responsible forest management. Chain of Custody certification is essential for businesses seeking to access environmentally and socially aware markets, or to demonstrate compliance with public and private procurement policies that specify environmentally responsible materials. These include the EU Ecolabel scheme for furniture, or the US Green Building Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system.
Controlled Wood; Only materials from FSC-acceptable sources can be used as controlled. There are 5 categories of unacceptable material that cannot be mixed with FSC certified materials:
Illegally harvested wood
wood harvested in violation of traditional and civil rights
wood harvested in forests in which High Conservation Values are threatened by management activities (HCVs are areas particularly worth of protection)
wood harvested in forests being converted to plantations or non-forest use
wood from forests in which genetically modified trees are planted.
The controlled materials can be verified either by the manufacturer according to the 'company' standard for Controlled Wood (FSC-STD-40-005) or through Controlled Wood Forest Management certification, according to the standard FSC-STD-30-010.
Hardboard is a composite panel manufactured primarily from inter-felted ligno-cellulosic fibers consolidated under heat and pressure. Other materials may be added during the manufacturing process to improve certain properties, such as resistance to abrasion and moisture, and to increase strength and durability. Hardboard is a type of unfinished composite panel made from residual wood fiber.
HPL (High Pressure Laminate)
HPL is produced by saturating multiple layers of Kraft paper with phenolic resin. A layer of printed décor paper is placed on top of the Kraft paper before pressing. The resulting sandwich is fused together under heat and pressure (more than 1,000 PSI). Because phenolic and melamine resins are thermoset plastics, the curing process transforms the resin into plastic by a cross linking process that converts the paper sheets into a single, rigid laminated sheet. Particleboard or MDF are the preferred substrate because they provide a stable, durable, consistent and economical foundation. It is available with special performance properties including chemical, fire and wear resistance.
This is a plywood grading rule governed by "Hardwood Plywood and Veneer Association (HPVA)". It is used as a plywood grading standard in the USA.
A Grade Face - The face on hardwood plywood should be matched for both grain and color. All veneer splices should be book-matched for a visually pleasing appearance. There should not be any abrupt changes in color or grain between the splices and will not permit sound knots, repaired knots or rough-cut veneer. It may allow slight mineral streak and/or vine marks. The number of defects such as pin knots or small burls varies according to the specie of veneer. This is the best face grade on plywood normally stocked and is often used for upper-end cabinetry, architectural millwork, and quality furniture.
B Grade Face - The face on hardwood plywood should be matched for a pleasing color, but not necessarily for grain. B grade faces are generally very similar to A faces, but do allow some sound or repaired knots and some slight rough cut veneer. B grade faces will also allow slight mineral streak and vine marks and are often used by customers wishing to save a little money on plywood.
C Grade Face - The face on hardwood plywood allows for unlimited pin knots and small burls. It also can contain repaired knots and sound knots, allow unlimited mineral and vine marks, and face should be a sound smooth face. A C face is used primarily on paint grade type panels, in lower-end case work, and for cabinet interiors in upper-end cabinetry.
D Grade Face - The face on hardwood plywood is similar to C grade face, but will allow some rough cut veneer and a few more repaired and sound knots.
1 Back - It can contain up to 16 sound tight knots not exceeding 3/8" in diameter and is allowed to contain unlimited mineral streaks. A 1 back will not contain any repaired knots.
2 Back - It can contain up to 16 sound tight knots not exceeding 3/4" in diameter and can also contain repaired knots, rough cut veneer, and unlimited mineral streak. There is no open defects.
4 Back - This is generally referred to as a reject back and is to be used in concealed areas where appearance is of no concern. Most commonly used on 1/4" plywood.
A plywood core structure composed of a veneer and MDFThis is a hybrid of veneer core and fiber core. The panel is constructed using a veneer core with the two cross-bands under the face and back veneer being a thin fiber core. This construction eliminates the problem of veneer telegraphing through the face veneer when finishing and produces a panel weighing considerably less than the fiber core.
This is a plywood grading rule governed by "International Hardwood Plywood Association (IHPA)". It is commonly used in the USA as a standard for imported raw plywood.
BBCC - There is no defect allowed on the face. Minor defects must be skillfully repaired by color matched putty. No core lap and uneven core thickness is allowed. Very minor core void and end splits are allowed but are not shown to the face. All core veneer components must be machine spliced.
Overlay (OVL) - There is almost no defect allowed on the face. Minor defects such as hairline splits and knots must be skillfully repaired by color matched putty. No core lap and uneven core thickness is allowed. Some minor core void and end splits are allowed but are not shown to the face. All core veneer components must be machine spliced.
Utility (UTY)---There is some minor defect allowed on the face such as end splits, knots and discoloration. But they must be skillfully repaired by putty. No uneven core thickness is allowed. Some core void, core lap and end splits are allowed but end splits are not shown on the face. All core veneer components must be machine spliced.
4mm and thinner
4mm - 7mm
7mm - 20mm
20mm and thicker
Japan Agriculture Standard enacted legislation in 2003 to reduce formaldehyde emissions in composite wood products. This formaldehyde regulation for wood panels is widely considered the most stringent in the world.
This is a plywood grading rule governed by "Japan Plywood Inspection Corp (JPIC)". It is commonly used in Japan and South Asian countries as a standard for imported raw plywood.
BBCC - There is no defect allowed on the face. Minor defects must be skillfully repaired by color matched putty. No core lap and uneven core thickness is allowed. Very minor core void and end splits are allowed but are not shown on the face. All core veneer components must be machine spliced.
Overlay (OVL) - There is almost no defect allowed on the face. Minor defects such as hairline splits and knots must be skillfully repaired by color matched putty. No core lap and uneven core thickness is allowed. Some minor core void and end splits are allowed but are not shown on the face. All core veneer components must be machine spliced.
Utility (UTY) - There is some minor defect allowed on the face such as end splits, knots and discoloration. But they must be skillfully repaired by putty. No uneven core thickness is allowed. Some core void, core lap and end splits are allowed but end splits are not shown on the face. All core veneer components must be machine spliced.
4mm and thinner
4mm - 7mm
7mm - 20mm
20mm and thicker
Kraft paper is paper or paperboard (cardboard) produced from chemical pulp produced in Kraft process. Pulp produced by Kraft process is stronger than that made by other pulping processes. Kraft pulp is darker than other wood pulps, but it can be bleached to make very white pulp. Fully bleached Kraft pulp is used to make high quality paper where strength, whiteness and resistance to yellowing are important.
Lumber Core plywood consists of a face & back veneer, then a layer of crossband veneer, with the edge glued or finger jointed lumber in the center. Meranti, falcata, pine, rubber wood and other species are used for lumber core.
Marine Plywood Grades
BS 1088 and BS 6566 are British Standard specification grade for marine plywood. To be qualitfied as marine plywood, it must be produced with untreated tropical hardwood veneers that have a set level of resistance to fungal attack, use WBP glue, no core voids, and controll thickness and number of plies. The face veneers must have a solid surface without open defects. BS 6566 standard is similar to the BS 1088 with somewhat reduced quality.
MDF(Medium Density Fiber Core)
A plywood core structure composed of a medium density fiber board. A medium density fiberboard used as the core in the manufacture of the panel. This is a three-ply construction using a face veneer, a back veneer and the fiberboard as the core. This type of construction tends to produce the most stable panel. Fiber core construction also offers a void free core with excellent machinability. The fiber core with its super smooth surface provides a superior core for finishing the face and back veneer. The only real negative on fiber core construction is the weight of the panel produced. A typical ¾" thick plywood with fiber core will weigh approx. 100 lbs. 2 ply door skin is referred to construction of 1 ply MDF and 1 ply of face veneer.
Type of resin used to produce plywood which has formaldehyde emissions higher than Phenol but lower than Urea. Melamine resin is manufactured by mixing urea with formaldehyde under heat and pressure. The substances begins to polymerize and are forced into a mold which create the desired shape. The materials finish polymerizing and create a finished product, melamine resin. Melamine-formaldehyde resin is similar to urea-formaldehyde resin in its processing and applications, but melamine resins are more moisture-resistant, harder, and stronger. Melamine moldings are glossy and one of the hardest plastics, and they retain a dust-free surface. However, their use in coatings is decreasing because of restrictions on the emission of formaldehyde, a major component of these coatings.
This stands for Mixed Light Hardwood. There is no predominant hardwood specie in Papua New Guinea compared to Meranti that is a predominant specie in Indonesia and Malaysia. Therefore, hardwood species harvested in Papua New Guinea is called MLH in all.
MPF (Multiple Piece Face)
Face of the plywood is composed with multiple leaves of veneer. It is used as opposite concept to WPF. This method creates matching pattern of book match, slip match, random match and plank match. In general, It should be machine spliced for thickness thicker than 0.5mm veneer and not machine spliced for thickness thinner than 0.5mm veneer.
Type of glue that is resistant to moisture but cannot handle boiling water for several hours without delaminating, MR stands for Moisture Resistant. Plywood assembled with MR glue is resistant to moisture and is generally used for home interior applications.
P/S (Plain Slice)
By slicing parallel to the center of the log, a raised "cathedral effect" is formed by the innermost growth rings. The resulting cut is characterized by straight grain intermixed with cathedrals.
Paper & Polyester Plywood
Plywood is overlaid by a layer of paper before a thin layer of polyester resin is applied to it's surface. Polyester plywood comes in either matt or gloss finish. The polyester coating gives it very hardy and scratch resistance surface and is water resistance.
Paper Overlay Plywood
This is a plywood overlaid with a decorative paper. An adhesive bonds the paper to the plywood. The decorative paper is characterized by being very thin and have a simulated wood grain pattern. The overlaid paper may be coated with a transparent resin coat. The coat is embossed with wood-grain simulating pattern.
PB (Particleboard core)
A plywood core structure composed of a particle board. This is where an industrial grade particleboard is used as the core in the manufacture of a panel. The construction of a panel is the same as fiber core. Particleboard core has the same advantages and disadvantages of fiber core with the exception of not having the same degree of machinability.
Type of resin used to produce plywood which has extremely low formaldehyde emissions. It is made from any synthetic resins made by reacting phenol (an aromatic alcohol derived from benzene) with formaldehyde (a reactive gas derived from methane). Phenols are similar to alcohols but form stronger hydrogen bonds. Thus, they are more soluble in water than are alcohols and have higher boiling points which do not break down under exterior end use conditions. Information developed by numerous organizations have consistently shown that formaldehyde emission associated with phenolic resin-bonded plywood is extremely low.
A type of face where the grain patterns are matched at every other veneer joint. Components are book matched and flipped end to end to avoid a line of knots across the face of the veneer. This match is typically used in rustic woods to ensure characteristic marks are evenly distributed throughout the sheet.
Q/S (Quarter Slice)
The slicing is made perpendicular to the annual growth rings of the tree. This creates a straight grain appearance. This method bisects annual growth rings and results in a straight grain appearance.
R/C (Rotary Cut)
The log is centered on a lathe and turned against a broad cutting knife set into the log at a slight angle. Since this cut follows the log's annual growth rings, a wide, bold grain pattern is produced.
A type of face where the used veneer can be various width, color and grain, just like how it sounds. Usually done with lower grades of veneer, the leaves may be of varying width, colors and grains. It gives casual or rustic effect. The components may be of different widths within the panel face.
This stands for Reject Back or Regular Back. Open defects such as splits and dead knots are allowed. It is used for balancing plywood. It is similar grade to #4 back on HPVA grading.
This straight grain cut is derived by slicing flitch at a slight angle to minimize the irregularities in the wood. This accentuates the vertical grain and minimized the flake. Rift cut veneers are more expensive due to lower yield from the log.
Slip Matched Face
A type of face composed from adjacent veneer creating a repeated pattern. Face is composed by laying the veneer strips side by side and joining together to form the face without flipping leaves.
This stands for Sound Sanded Back. Usually the same specie as the face veneer of plywood is used for backs. Unlimited amount of natural defects are allowed but not open defects. It is similar grade to #2 back on HPVA grading.
TFL (Thermally Fused Laminate)
TFL panels consist of a melamine-impregnated print or solid-color décor sheet that is pressed directly onto a substrate like particleboard or medium density fiberboard (MDF). Using heat and pressure the resin from the décor layer melts and joins with the surface of the substrate to create a permanent bond. There is no Kraft paper used in TFL. Surface textures are created with steel press plates that emboss the decorative overlay to heighten the realism of wood grain, stone or abstract designs. TFL decorative panels have excellent scratch and wear resistance.
Type I (P)
Type of glue for plywood used primarily for outdoors withstanding extended periods of high moisture.
Type II (D)
Type of glue for plywood primarily used for indoors withstanding minimal water splash and moisture.
This is plywood produced for underlay, a material placed underneath the floor, carpet, and other flooring materials. Underlayment is preferred a water resistant or waterproof layer used beneath many types of commercially available roofing material.
A type of resin used to produce plywood which has formaldehyde emissions higher than Phenol and Melamin. It is any of a class of synthetic resins obtained by chemical combination of urea (a solid crystal obtained from ammonia) and formaldehyde (a highly reactive gas obtained from methane). It is less durable than the other two resins and do not have sufficient weather resistance to be used in exterior applications while production costs are lower than the other two resins. Concerns over the release of formaldehyde into the air have led to substitution even here by phenolic.
Type of plywood finish featuring a clear, durable top coating to add toughness, resisting to scrapes and chip. UV coating is basically a compound that is applied to wet wood and then instantly dried by ultraviolet light. Several different types of compounds are used to coat wood. UV finished surface is expected to reduce VOC (Volatile Organics Compounds) emissions. Different sheen level (or gloss level) is available such as UV50, UV40 and UV30. UV plywood is prefinished hardwood plywood panel featuring a clear, durable top coat, which will add toughness, resisting scrapes, chips and the effects of solvent wipe down to plywood.
VC (Veneer Core)
A plywood core structure composed of veneer sheets referred to as plies. This is the standard veneer cross-banding technique where an odd number of veneers are laminated together to produce the final panel. The number of veneers in a panel is referred to as the number of plies. Meranti VC gives more stability than poplar VC. Combi VC is referred to combination veneer core of mixed hardwood species and poplar veneer. 4 ply plywood is referred to construction of 3 ply VC and 1 ply of face veneer.
Vietnamese Fancy vs Chinese Fancy
The core type and quality of the core production is the distinctive difference between Vietnamese and Chinese fancy. Chinese production utilizes a poplar veneer core while Vietnamese production utilizes a meranti veneer core. Both products offer exceptional value and quality however the meranti veneer core on the Vietnamese production will offer a superior core and more stable platform.
Type of glue that can withstand boiling in water for several hours without delaminating, WBP stands for Water Boil Proof. Any glue used for marine plywood or for the outdoors has to conform to a stringent test. Plywood assembled from WBP needs to be able to withstand boiling in water for several hours without de-laminating.
WPF (Whole Piece Face)
Face of the plywood will use a continuous veneer without splices.
Whole piece faces are made by rotary cut veneer. The whole piece face will not contain any splices. A whole piece face will give a continuous grain pattern across the entire panel.